(E-E) Ev.g.e.n.i.j ..K.o.z.l.o.     Berlin                                                  


      (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov: Leningrad 80s >>


Hannelore Fobo

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
“ART from the USSR / ART for the USA.”


Three objects on bus stop signs, 1988

Documentation: Hannelore Fobo, 2019



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov at the exhibition “Der Weg der Ockerfarbenen Elefanten”, Kampnagel, Hamburg, 1991. Among the exhibits: four objects painted on bus-stop signs, presented on supporting stands Left: “Lenin Boulevard” from the series “ART from the USSR / ART for the USA“ (1988). The other three objects are from the “New Classicals” cycle (1989/1990), see below Photo: Hannelore Fobo

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov at the exhibition “Der Weg der Ockerfarbenen Elefanten”, Kampnagel, Hamburg, 1991.
Among the exhibits: four objects painted on bus stop signs, presented on supporting stands
Left: “Lenin Boulevard” from the series “ART from the USSR / ART for the USA“ (1988).
The other three objects are from the “New Classicals” cycle (1989/1990), see below
Photo: Hannelore Fobo, 1991



(E-E) Evgeni Kozlov ART from the USSR / ART for the USA. ”Three objects on bus stop signs, two sided, mixed media on wood,  42.5 cm (height) x 59.9 cm (width) x 2 cm (depth), 1988  Top: ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard) Centre: ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street) Bottom: ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard)

(E-E) Evgeni Kozlov
ART from the USSR / ART for the USA.
”Three objects on bus stop signs, two-sided, mixed media on wood,
42.5 cm (height) x 59.9 cm (width) x 2 cm (depth), 1988

Top:
ART и СССР • ART and USSR
(Lenin Boulevard)
Centre:
ART из СССР / ART для USAART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street)
Bottom:
ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard)


Introduction

Throughout the 20th century, the rivalry between Russia and America was a factor in world affairs affecting the spiritual state of the Earth – taking the Earth to be an organism, that is. In the 1980s, Evgenij Kozlov, at the time a leading member of the Leningrad-based group The New Artists, repeatedly turned his attention to this relationship. […]

Depending on how narrowly or broadly you define the content-related criteria in relation to USA-CCCP, between 1980 and 1989 you reach a figure of as many as 164 works, including the sketches. Of the roughly 850 works that have been documented from this period – excluding vintage prints – those that fit the USA-CCCP category constitute somewhat less than a fifth.

Kozlov did not treat these works as a unit. They can, however, be summarised under the title USA‑CCCP, with CCCP being the Russian equivalent of USSR. USA‑CCCP provided the title for a number of works from 1986 onwards in that it was actually graphically depicted in these works.

There were always rapprochements between the USA and the USSR, and the Apollo-Soyuz test project in 1975 even brought cooperation in space – which Kozlov satirized in Полет в космосе / Flying in the Cosmos (1986). However, it was only during the course of perestroika that the stereotypical enmity gradually petered out. […] 1988 saw production of the cycle Art из CCCP / Art для USA (Art from the USSR / Art for the USA) on bus-stop signs displaying typical Soviet street names such as Comintern Street and Lenin Boulevard that have been partly overpainted. This was the year some of the New Artists first travelled abroad to visit so-called capitalist countries; Evgenij Kozlov’s first trip abroad took place in 1990. It seemed the opening up of the Soviet Union was irreversible. (From the exhibition catalogue USA-CCCP-CHINA Berlin, 2018
more >> )





Stylistically, Kozlov‘s USA‑CCCP works from the 1987-1989 period show a clear influence of the Russian and Soviet avant-garde, especially of Constructivism. Kozlov, however, combined such stencilled, abstract forms and letters with elements of pop art and even realistic figure painting, thereby [text continues below]
Left: Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning (1912), displaying a piece of oil cloth with a printed pattern in the lower half. Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Points of Contact (1988)

Left: Pablo Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning (1912), displaying a piece of oil cloth with a printed pattern in the lower half.
Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Points of Contact (1988)

creating his own, distinct style. “Objets trouvés” or “found objects“ played an important role – works of art made from objects originally serving another function. Art history considers Picasso‘s Still Life with Chair Caning (1912) as the prototype for this technique. The Dada and Surrealist movements subsequently used this technique to dignify or decontextualise otherwise banal objects. Marcel Duchamps’ “readymades” are classical examples.

In the works discussed here, Kozlov did not employ found objects in the same manner. Generally speaking, they had the same function to him as any media or material he used for his works, be it paint, canvas, or his own photographs: he chose them because of their visual and haptic – aesthetic – properties. Yet it was just as important to him that these properties should allow him to create a new meaning – not in the sense of an unlikely combination (e.g. Salvador Dali‘s Lobster Telephone), but in the sense of a likely, if unexpected combination.

Points of Contact (1988), made from a felt-lined cutlery tray, may serve as an example. It has four compartments for spoons, forks, and knives of different sizes. The two horizontal compartments now display the words “USA” and “CCCP”, respectively, and the two vertical ones the figures of a man and a woman. Thus the object’s very design emphasises these double polarities, although in a second step, the artists reconnects them with the help of two red and two black dots, applied diametrically opposed inside the two figures. The viewer instinctively joins them to form two diagonally-crossing lines – a cross of St Andrew – creating an equilibrium in the dynamic force of the two poles.




Art from the USSR / Art for the USA on Bus Stop Signs


Left: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988 Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Art from the USSR, 1988

Left: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988
Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Art from the USSR, 1988


We find a similar approach in Kozlov’s works on bus-stop signs. As they can be read from either side, they “possess“ a natural polarity. Accordingly, the artist used – with two of the three pieces – one side for the motif Art from the USSR, and the other side for Art for the USA. As a result, the once identical sides convert into a sort of linear account starting on one side and continuing on the other, like the A and B-sides of vinyl records.

While both the USA and the USSR were not unusual subjects among Soviet artists, the concept of art coming from the USSR and presented as a gift to the USA was quite unique. Kozlov approached it in a systematic way and chose a variety of symbols to express this idea. Art из CCCP – Art from the USSR, the words on the “A side” – became the logotype for a number of works from that period, especially when attached to a skull shouting these words to the world.




Art from the USSR. The Logotype and the Street Names.


Top: Alexander Rodchenko Books (Please)!, 1924 Bottom: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Art from the USSR, Handbag (reverse), 1988

Top: Alexander Rodchenko Books (Please)!, 1924
Bottom: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Art from the USSR, Handbag (reverse), 1988

This logo is reminiscent of Alexander Rodchenko‘s design of the poster “Books (Please)!” from 1924, although the message is, of course, different.

The original bus stop signs displayed a number of features that were fully or partly integrated into the compositions in quite specific ways. Of great importance are the street names the artist selected: Lenin Boulevard and Comintern Street. They represent the essence of Soviet ideology. Kozlov “found” these signs in Peterhof, near St. Petersburg, where he lived between 1970 and 1989. Besides, the Soviets had also changed the names of both cities: Peterhof was called ”Petrodvorets” (until 1997) and St. Petersburg “Leningrad” (until 1991).

While Lenin and his role in creating a Socialist totalitarian state need no further explanation, “Comintern” is no longer a current term. “Comintern” is short for “The Communist International” (1919-1943), a network of communist organisations from a large number of countries under the guidance of the Soviet Union. Its aim was to achieve world communism - propagated as the bright future of peoples, when they would all live in harmony with each other.





Born to Be an Artist. The Logotype

Vision magazine, China No. 175, August 2018 "Born to Be an Artist”. Double page from an interview with (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. The picture of the artist was taken at his studio “Gallaxy Gallery”, Peterhof, 1988. Handbags and fashion are from E-E’s cycle of works Art from the USSR.

Vision magazine, China No. 175, August 2018
"Born to Be an Artist”. Double page from an interview with (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. more>>
The picture of the artist was taken at his studio “Gallaxy Gallery”, Peterhof, 1988.
Handbags and fashion are from E-E’s cycle of works Art from the USSR.




Terror / Peace to the Enemy. The Fires of Petrodvorets. The Logotype.

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov [Ст]рах Врагам. Огни Петродворца Terror / Peace to the Enemy. The Fires of Petrodvorets 204 x 219 cm, 1989 The Aboa Vetus & Ars Nova Collection, Turku, Finland Photo: Jari Nieminen, 2013

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
[Ст]рах Врагам. Огни Петродворца
Terror / Peace to the Enemy. The Fires of Petrodvorets
204 x 219 cm, 1989 The Aboa Vetus & Ars Nova Collection, Turku, Finland
Photo: Jari Nieminen, 2013 . more >> and more >>




Leningrad Bus Stop Signs

Admiralteysky Prospekt bus stop, St. Petersburg, with historical sign, early 1990s. Photo: Hannelore Fobo

Admiralteysky Prospekt bus stop, St. Petersburg, with historical sign,
early 1990s. Photo: Hannelore Fobo

The bus stop signs have now become historical in more than one way. The streets were renamed in 1993 – “Lenin Boulevard” is again “Erlerovsky Boulevard”, and “Comintern Street” is “Razvodnaya Street.” Likewise, the wooden signs, manufactured in a preindustrial manner, have been replaced by modern ones.

The old ones possessed the charm of any individual, slightly improvised production: the raw wooden strips nailed to the ochre board contain knotholes, and the letters and numbers were applied with the help of stencils, which makes the spacing irregular. The size of each sign is, however, standardised: 42.5 cm (height) x 59.9 cm (width) x 2 cm (depth).

In this picture of Admiralteysky Prospekt bus stop, St. Petersburg, we see one of these historical signs. The picture was taken in the early 1990s. The large “A” stands for Автобус – Autobus, and the numbers refer to the bus lines serving the bus stop. Below each number is a smaller field to indicate the frequency of the respective bus – the time interval, given in minutes. As these fields are left empty, passengers are required to rely on their experience or patience.




St. Petersburg city centre, early 1990s. This bus stop served line 10, 49 and 128 Photo: Hannelore Fobo

St. Petersburg city centre, early 1990s.
This bus stop served line 10, 49 and 128
Photo: Hannelore Fobo

The wooden border strips make a natural frame Kozlov used in his works, sometimes keeping the original silver bronze paint. The board’s ochre colour also remains visible, either as background colour or with smaller sections. Other features that can be recognised are the letter A as the initial letter of the word ART, the grid for bus numbers and intervals, and, of course, the above-mentioned street names.



Left: Bus stop pole without a sign at Peterhof, near St. Petersburg. Photo: Hannelore Fobo, early 1990s Right: Present-day view of the same place. Photo: Igor Khadikov, 2019

Left: Bus stop pole without a sign at Peterhof, near St. Petersburg.
Photo: Hannelore Fobo, early 1990s
Right: Present-day view of the same place.
Photo: Igor Khadikov, 2019

Left is a bus-stop pole without a sign at Peterhof, near St. Petersburg. It is next to Peterhof library, a short walk from the apartment Kozlov lived in between 1970 and 1989. The picture is from the early 1990s, and the smaller picture below offers a present-day view of the same place. Modern bus stop signs display timetables, routes, and a QR code.

From the 1920s to 1993 this street was called “Lenin Boulevard”; its current name is “Erlerovsky Boulevard”, and the bus stop is “Zharnovetsky Street” The three objects from the 1988 series “Art from the USSR / Art for the USA” were made with signs from bus stops nearby – at “Lenin Boulevard / Comintern Street”, and at “Comintern Street” (later renamed Razvodnaya Street). At the same time, the artist used three more bus stop signs to create the “sketches” for his cycle “New Classicals”. Here the original signs are entirely covered with the six motifs.

At the turn from 1992 to 1993, Kozlov created another object with a bus stop sign from “Comintern Street”, entitled С НОВЫМ ГОДОМ (HAPPY NEW YEAR.)Thus, the total number of these works amounts to seven.




ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard)

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

The letters “BU” and “LENINA” are from БУЛЬВАР ЛЕНИНА, Lenin Boulevard. The other letters, including “Comintern Street“ (originally written above “Lenin Boulevard”), have been overpainted.

The building in the form of a step pyramid is a reference to the Lenin Mausoleum in Red Square, Moscow, built in 1924 – the spiritual or antispiritual centre of the Soviet Union. Snow is coming down from the cloud to the right, benignly covering the building and the square, with the exception of some dark areas.


A newspaper cutting – just above the signature – marks the entrance to the mausoleum. It shows a poem celebrating New Year‘s Eve, although the pathos of the verses is characteristic of an epitathios logos, a funeral oration in honour of the dead. In fact, like an epitaph engraved on a commemorative stone, this piece of paper is closing access to the tomb. Lenin‘s stone sculpture oversees the scene.

The words inscribed along the border are a combination of key terms from the French and the Russian or October Revolution: РЕВОЛЮЦИЯ (Revolution, top), РАВЕНСТВО (Equality, left), БРАТСТВО (Brotherhood, right), ТРУД / МИР (Work / Peace, bottom, left and right of Kozlov‘s signature).



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART и СССР • ART and USSR (Lenin Boulevard)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

The reverse of “BU LENINA” displays one of the most popular sculptures from the Soviet period: Vera Mukhina‘s double statue of a “Worker and Kolkhoz Woman” raising high a hammer and a sickle.

The giant 24.5 m constructivist sculpture was originally designed for the Soviet pavilion of the 1937 World‘s Fair in Paris and was later moved to Moscow, where it has since been displayed at the VDNKh, the “Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy”. Kozlov’s composition also displays a sketch of Moscow‘s modern skyline. The top border carries the inscription РАЙ – Paradise.

The text ART и CCCP (ART and USSR) identifies Soviet art with this type of heroic pathos that celebrates the formerly supressed classes – workers and farmers – as divine warriors. Yet the word left of the sculpture, МИР – Peace – is followed by a question mark. Although subsequently crossed out, it nevertheless raises doubts about the new achievements.

Today, the monument is still considered as a major piece of Soviet art. In 2009, it was installed on top of a new pavilion, increasing its total height to 60 meters.

Unlike the compact, nearly static composition with Lenin‘s mausoleum, this side of the object offers an extremely dynamic perspective emphasising the movement of the figures. Kozlov set the vanishing point to the top right corner, above the hammer and sickle, to a red star painted on the right border. Strong, irregular diagonals all “rush” to this star, like air filling a vacuum at great speed.




ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street).

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Left: Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988 Top and right: USA-CCCP, series of painted photographs, 1987 Exhibition view at USA-CCCP-CHINA  Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018


(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Left:
Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988
Top and right:
USA-CCCP, series of painted photographs, 1987
Exhibition view at
USA-CCCP-CHINA
Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018
Photo: gewis



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Left: Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988 Top and right: USA-CCCP, series of painted photographs, 1987 Exhibition view at USA-CCCP-CHINA  Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018


(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Left:
Art from the USSR / Art for the USA (Comintern Street), 1988
Top and right:
USA-CCCP, series of painted photographs, 1987
Exhibition view at
USA-CCCP-CHINA
Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018
Photo: gewis



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART из СССР / ART для USAART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988


This piece is made on a “Comintern Street” bus stop sign, and we can see a fragment of the bus line number 354. In 1993, “Comintern Street” was renamed Razvodnaya Street, but bus line 354 still operates the same route today. The bus stop is now called “Universam” – “Supermarket”.

Comintern is short for “The Communist International” (1919-1943), a network of communist organisations from a large number of countries under the guidance of the Soviet Union. Its aim was to achieve world communism - propagated as a bright future of peoples living in harmony with each other.


The text reads ART ИЗ СССР (ART from the USSR), and the newspaper cuttings with pictures relating to the 1950s (or perhaps to an earlier period) depict an aestheticised image of the Soviet Union: shining cars are driving through Moscow and happy female workers proudly present large bouquets of flowers.

On the border of the bus stop sign are symbols Kozlov created for another object: “Mama”, “Papa”, and the figures of a woman and a trumpeter.



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART из СССР / ART для USAART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

The other side of this object is entitled ART ДЛЯ USA (ART FOR the USA). Its central part is Kozlov‘s photograph from a series portraying two pregnant women. Using two signs that cover their faces, the two women introduce each other as CCCP and USA. The letter Я (“ya”, which translates as “I“) of ДЛЯ (FOR) shoots an arrow towards the left sign, USA.

Another photograph from this series sees the women standing back to back. Kozlov cast a net over their bodies formed from longitude and latitude. Thus the profiles of the two women accurately illustrate the curvature of the Earth’s surface: together, CCCP and USA form the globe. – They are life-bearing.

Yet in the bus stop sign, skulls are framing the women on both sides. Life is unmistakably associated with death.




ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard).

Left: Exhibition Miniatures in Paradise, Victory Column, Berlin, 1995 The pictures displays one of Kozlov's sixteen Miniatures more>> Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

Left: Exhibition Miniatures in Paradise, Victory Column, Berlin, 1995
The pictures displays one of Kozlov's sixteen
Miniatures more>>
Right: (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

As with the previous work, this bus sign was originally taken from the stop at the intersection of Comintern Street with Lenin Boulevard (уг. = угол = corner). it is one of two entitled ART ИЗ СССР (ART from the USSR) on one side and ART ДЛЯ USA (ART for the USA) on the other.

The central element of ART from the USSR is a piece of embroidery cut out from a larger work – a little cat sitting in a basket decorated with flowers, its gaze directed at the viewer. Left and right of this sweet creature are constructivist figures of a man and a women. Their abstract, flat black shapes stand in contrast to the elaborate, colourful cross-stitching piece.

Kozlov designed these stencilled figures for his work Points of Contact, also from 1988, which portrays the USA and the CCCP as a couple, a woman and a man, with the question of who represents who being left to the viewer.

The artist developed them further in the cycle New Classicals; first on bus stop signs, then on canvas of a 2x3m format, and finally, in 1995, with his large cycle Miniatures in Paradise – sixteen flags in a 5x2m format displayed around Victory Column, Berlin.



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov. ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard) two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 cm x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov.
ART из СССР / ART для USA • ART from the USSR / ART for the USA (Comintern Street / Lenin Boulevard)
two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 cm x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1988

The letters in ART ДЛЯ USA (ART for the USA) combine stencilled shapes with handwriting. ART and USA are neatly inserted into the geometrical design of the bus stop sign, with ART again making use of the A, short for “Autobus”. ДЛЯ (for) displays highly ornamental letters with angular curves, resembling wrought iron window grills or graffiti art. A black contour designed in the same zigzagging manner frames the picture. Its central motif is a man standing between the letters S and A of USA. His naked upper body is covered with a multitude of dots and scars – perhaps skin diseases or injuries. The man is holding to a bar upon his head, and with his unshaved face and grim look he represents the cliché of an American prison inmate as depicted by Soviet propaganda – a victim of the capitalist system.

Another cliché figure appears to the left of the word ДЛЯ, but as an entirely positive symbol: the little pig “Krusha” from the popular TV programme “Good Night, Little Ones!” (Спокойной ночи, малыши!).

First introduced in 1970, “Krusha” has become a dear friend to many generations of Soviet and later Russian children, helping them to exist in a world marked by confrontation and (verbal) aggression, the latter being represented by the missiles painted on the left and right borders. In other words, while Kozlov ironically plays with negative clichés, he does appreciate positive ones, as long as they are pure and innocent. Here it is “Krusha” who wants to make friends – through ART. A little pig called “Khrunia” became the hero of Kozlov’s poem from 1997 Oracles on Orange Peel.





Other works on bus stop signs. Three works from the cycle New Classicals, two-sided.

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Three works from the cycle New Classicals Left: Untitled (Love for the Cosmos / Love for Work) Centre; Untitled (Love for the Wonderful / Love for the Earth) Right: Untitled (Love for Man / Love for Woman)

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Three works from the cycle
New Classicals
Left: Untitled (
Love for the Cosmos / Love for Work)
Centre; Untitled (
Love for the Wonderful / Love for the Earth)
Right: Untitled (
Love for Man / Love for Woman)




Other works on bus stop signs: С Новым годом • Happy New Year

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov С Новым годом • Happy New Year two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1992/1993

(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
С Новым годом • Happy New Year
Two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1992/1993



(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov С Новым годом • Happy New Year two-sided, mixed media on wood 42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1992/1993


(E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
С Новым годом • Happy New Year
Two-sided, mixed media on wood
42.5 x 59.9 x 2 cm, 1992/1993

The central part of this work uses a print copy from a black and white reproduction of Kozlov's graphic work from 1982. The graphic work, “Высокий уровень техники / A High Level of Technique" interprets an illustration on page 507 of "The Stalin White Sea-Baltic Canal. The History of its Construction, 1931-1934” Moscow, 1934 (page no from the 1998 reprint). more >>

The book illustration has the following caption: "Техника на Западе достигает выского уровня" / Western technique has reached a high level – a cynical comment on a scene depicting a man beating a prisoner with a baton. more >>

According to Soviet propaganda, such inhumane treatment of criminals was characteristic of capitalist societies, while the Soviet system relied on re-education, as Aglaya Glebova states: “Like many of the early gulags – those in operation between 1927 and 1934 – the Canal was widely advertised by the Soviet government, which framed the camps as a humane project to rehabilitate criminals and ‘class enemies’, a re-education policy known as ‘reforging’ [perekovka]. (In: “‘No Longer an Image, Not Yet a Concept’: Montage and the Failure to Cohere in Aleksandr Rodchenko’s Gulag Photoessay”, Art History Journal of the Association for Art History, April 2019, p. 333).




Exhibition USA-CCCP-CHINA

Left: Exhibition view at USA-CCCP-CHINA Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018 more >> Points of Contact, 237 x 112 cm, 1989 Hannelore Fobo and (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov Right: Exhibition catalogue USA-CCCP-CHINA with related works from 1980 - 1989 more >>


Left: Exhibition view at USA-CCCP-CHINA
Egbert Baqué Contemporary, Berlin, 2018
more >>
Points of Contact, 237 x 112 cm, 1989
Hannelore Fobo and (E-E) Evgenij Kozlov
Right: Exhibition catalogue
USA-CCCP-CHINA
with related works from 1980 - 1989
more >>



Uploaded 25 March 2019